Non-visual identification, localization, and selection of entities of interest in a 3D environment


This paper addresses the use of audio and haptics as a mean to reduce the load of the visual channel in interaction tasks within virtual environments. An examination is made regarding the exploitation of audio and/or haptic interactions for the acquisition of a target of interest in an environment containing multiple and obscured distractors. A first study compares means for identifying and locating a specified target among others employing either audio, haptic, or both sensori-motor channels activated simultaneously. Following an analysis of the results and subject comments, an improved multimodal approach is proposed and evaluated in a second study, combining advantages offered by each sensory channel. Results confirm the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed multimodal approach.


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