Preoperative cardiac risk management.

Abstract

Approximately 100 million people undergo noncardiac surgery annually worldwide. It is estimated that around 3% of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery experience a major adverse cardiac event. Although cardiac events, like myocardial infarction, are major cause of perioperative morbidity or mortality, its true incidence is difficult to assess. The risk of perioperative cardiac complications depends mainly on two conditions: (1) identified risk factors, and (2) the type of the surgical procedure. On that basis, different scoring systems have been developed in order to accurately assess the perioperative cardiac risk and to improve the patient management. Importantly, patients with estimated high risk should be tested preoperatively by non-invasive cardiac imaging modalities. According to test results, they can proceed directly to planed surgery with the use of cardioprotective drugs (beta-blockers, statins, aspirin), or to myocardial revascularization prior to non-cardiac surgery. In this review, we discuss the role of clinical cardiac risk factors, laboratory measurements, additional non-invasive cardiac testing, and consequent strategies in perioperative management of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.

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